Members of the IHFFC

In conformity with Article 90 of Protocol I, the depositary - Switzerland - convenes at intervals of five years a meeting of representatives of the High Contracting Parties for the purpose of electing the Members of the Commission. The Members are elected by secret ballot from a list of persons to which each of the High Contracting Parties may nominate one person.

The Members of the Commission serve in their personal capacity and hold office until the election of new Members at ensuing meeting. In case of a casual vacancy, the Commission itself shall fill it, having due regard to the provisions of Article 90 of Protocol I and to the Rules of the Commission.

According to the Rules of the Commission (Rule 1, 2), before taking up his / her duties, each Member shall make the following solemn declaration:

«I will exercise my functions as a Member of this Commission impartially, conscientiously and in accordance with the provisions of the Protocol and these Rules, including those concerning secrecy.»

The current Members were elected at the meeting of the High Contracting Parties which was held on 19 November 2022, in Berne.

The President, the 1st Vice-President and the three Vice-Presidents constitute together the Bureau. They were elected by the fifteen members of the Commission during the first Annual Meeting of the new Commission (28 March 2022, virtually).

Former Members
For the list of the former Members of the IHFFC, please klick here.

Current Members of the IHFFC





























The members of the IHFFC (from the left to the right side):


First row:  Katarína Šmigová (Slovakia), Noor Ibrahim Al-Sada (Qatar), Dyanne Marenco Gonzalez (Costa Rica), Åsa Molde (Sweden), Tatiana Eddie Razafindravao (Madagascar), First Vice-President Elzbieta Mikos-Skuza (Poland)

Middle row: Vice-President Robin McNeill Love (United Kingdom), Vice-President Alfredo Labbé (Chile), Vice-President Mohamed Mahmoud Al Kamali (United Arab Emirates), President Thilo Marauhn (Germany), Sukhbold Sukhee (Mongolia)

Last row: Vaios Koutroulis (Belgium), Rachid Belhadj (Algeria), Mateus Kowalski (Portugal), Holger Federico Martinsen (Argentina)  


Details (Curriculum vitaes)

Thilo Marauhn


President of the IHFFC (since 20 February 2017)


Member since 2012

Thilo Marauhn

Professor, Dr.iur., M. Phil. - Born 1963 in Lüdenscheid.


He studied law at the Universities of Mannheim, Bonn and Heidelberg and International Relations at the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.

From 1990 to 2001, Thilo Marauhn was a research assistant/fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International law, Heidelberg.

He passed his state examination in law at Heidelberg (1990), obtained the Diploma in International Law and Relations at Aberystwyth (1986), the doctorate in law (Dr.iur.) at Heidelberg (1994), the Master of Philosophy at Aberystwyth (1995) and the "Habilitation" at Frankfurt/Main (2000).


He worked as Professor of European Law at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, in 2001. Since 2001, Thilo Marauhn has been a Professor of Public Law, International and European Law at the University of Giessen, Germany, and Permanent Visiting Professor of Constitutional Theory at the University of Lucern, Switzerland. In addition, he was visiting professor / lecturer at the following universities: University of Bergen (Norway), University of Lapland (Rovaniemi, Finland), University of Warwick (UK), Northwest University (Potchefstroom, South Africa), University of Wisconsin (Madison/USA), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre, Brazil).

Thilo Marauhn participated as project leader in a number of international research projects, including projects on private military and security compagnies (2008-2011) and on the legal status of unmanned aerial vehicles (2010-2012). He also served as a coordinator of various projects networking African Universities (since 2009).


He is Chair of the Governing Board of the African Law Association (Gesellschaft für afrikanisches Recht, since 2009). Thilo Marauhn is also Vice-Chair of the Commission for International Humanitarian Law, German Red Cross.

Apart from acting as a consultant for the German Government and International Organizations, Thilo Marauhn served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (Chairperson 2006-2009) and he is a Member of the Advisory Board of the German Foreign Office to the United Nations.

Elżbieta Mikos-Skuza
1st Vice-President of the IHFFC (since 20 February 2017)


Member since 2002
Elzbieta Mikos-Skuza

Dr Elżbieta Mikos-Skuza has been a member of the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission since 2002. Since 2017 she has served as Commission’s first vice-president. Elżbieta Mikos-Skuza is a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Warsaw, Poland and a visiting professor at the College of Europe in Natolin. Her fields of specialization include public international law, international humanitarian law (IHL) and peaceful resolution of disputes. Elżbieta Mikos-Skuza is the Director of Master Studies on Humanitarian Action at the University of Warsaw which are part of joint M.A. run by the Network on Humanitarian Action (NOHA) composed of eight European universities. She is also the Director of Postgraduate Studies on Humanitarian Assistance.  For many years she has been volunteering with the Polish Red Cross, including the function of PRC’s vice-president. For two decades she’s been a member of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law in Sanremo (Italy) as well as a member of the International Law Association (the so-called London List). Elżbieta Mikos-Skuza is the author of many publications on IHL and speaker during numerous international conferences and seminars.

Publications: Link

Mohamed Mahmoud
Al Kamali

Vice-President of the IHFFC
(since 3 April 2012)

Member since 2012

Justice. Dr Mohamed Mahmoud Al Kamali is General Director of the institute of training and Judicial Studies in UAE.


In his capacity as manager of the institute, he is responsible for applying the plan outlined by the scientific board of the Institute and representing the country in the international and local conferences on Judicial Training and studies and other legal issues. He is also a lecturer of the institute.


Dr Al-Kamali was appointed as Director of the Judicial Inspection Department in the Ministry of Justice from 2000 to 2004. He supervised the practical training in the University Of UAE in the educational court from 1998 to 2000. He also held the position of the Chief of the Federal Court of First Instance in Al-Ain from 1997 to 2000. Furthermore; he was an Appeal Judge in the Appeal Court of Ajman from 1996 to 1997. He was appointed as a Senior Judicial Inspector in the Ministry of Justice from 1995 to 1996. He worked from 1987 to 1990 as an assistant Judge, in a mandatory state, General Prosecutor in Al-Ain Prosecution.


Dr. Al-Kamali holds a Bachelor in law from the college of Sharia and Law, UAE University (1987). He also has a Diploma in International Commercial Law. Dr. Kamali also holds a PhD in Law (1995) and his area of expertise is related to "Development of Intellectual Property in the UAE".


He is a member in many organizations and societies:

  • Member of Committees to review federal laws in ministry of Chairman of Legal Negotiating Team in FTA Negotiations between UAE, USA and with Australia.
  • Chairman of GCC Patents office.
  • Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of international Humanitarian Law.
  • Member of Arab Women's Association of International humanitarian Law.
  • National Coordinator for Axis of Judicial Development and Verdicts Enforcement under the care of UNDP.
  • Member of the National Anti-Money Laundering Committee.
  • UAE Representative in the International Humanitarian Fact – Fining Commission.

Dr. Al Kamali is a member and the chairman of the UAE delegation team participating in many International and regional conferences, workshops and meetings related to different legal and judicial subjects like (organized crime , International Criminal Court, money laundering, corruption, crime of aggression, transitional justice, confronting counterfeiting and piracy, criminal's extradition and judicial and legal cooperation, judicial system and court administration, intellectual property law, cyber crimes, International Humanitarian Law).


Dr. Al Kamali is the author of numerous publications on intellectual property, trademarks, corruption, reconciliation committee, money laundering and International Humanitarian Law.

Alfredo Labbé
Vice-President of the IHFFC

(since 20 February 2017)


Member since 2017

Ambassador Labbé read law at the University of Chile, and the Pontifical Catholic Universities of Ecuador, and Perú, and graduated at the "Andrés Bello” Diplomatic Academy in Chile. He concluded his Post-graduate studies at the Chilean War Academy, Santiago.


At the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Labbé served as Director General for Foreign Policy, as a Permanent Representative to the United Nations and the International Organisations in Vienna, as the Director for International and Human Security, as Deputy Permanent Representative to the UN in New York, as Deputy Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva, as the Deputy Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, as the Head of the Disarmament and International Security Department, as Chargé d'Affaires to the Syrian Arab Republic, as Deputy Chief of Mission in Hungary, as the Head of the South American Department at the Directorate for Bilateral Policy, and as Diplomatic Secretary at the Embassies of Chile in Perú, Nicaragua and Ecuador.

Along his career, Ambassador Labbé developed expertise in cultural, neighboring and multilateral diplomacy, particularly in International Security and Disarmament, UN Reform and Human Rights. He has worked to develop and strengthen International Humanitarian Law and humanitarian-related Disarmament International Law, contributing to the negotiation, universalisation and implementation processes of the Ottawa Convention, the Oslo Convention and the Arms Trade Treaty.

Since 2005, Ambassador Labbé has been associated to the NPT Review process. He has chaired the II Conference of the States Parties and Signatories to the Treaties establishing Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, and headed the Chilean Delegation to the III Conference on Humanitarian Consequences of Nuclear Weapons. He now teaches at the Chilean War Academy Postgraduate Programme (2016-present). He has been appointed as Non-Resident Fellow of the Stimson Center, Washington, D.C (2016).

Robin McNeill Love

Vice-President of the IHFFC

(since 20 February 2017)


Member since 2017

Dr. Robin McNeill Love has served in the United Kingdom's Royal Navy from 1981-2014. Graduating in Medicine from the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, University of London (1984), he later achieved Membership of the UK's Royal College of General Practitioners and UK Royal College diplomas in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Anaesthetics, and Aviation Medicine. Appointed Consultant in Occupational Medicine (2005), he was honoured in 2014 with Fellowship of the Faculty of Occupational Medicine of the Royal College of Physicians of London.

During his naval career, Dr. McNeill Love has served on a global basis in several of Her Majesty's ships. This has included service as Principal Medical Officer (PMO) in the Royal Yacht, HM YACHT BRITANNIA (1992-4), which provided him with a privileged insight into the power of diplomacy in furthering harmonious international relations. Service as PMO in the Aircraft Carrier HMS ILLUSTRIOUS (1995-7) involved the peaceful transition of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the UK to China. Later senior appointments included Commanding Officer of the Royal Naval Hospital (RNH) in Gibraltar 2002-6. Promoted to Surgeon Captain in 2006 as President of the Naval Service Medical Board of Survey, he oversaw medical care and employability of significantly ill or injured Naval Service personnel. He was then appointed Deputy Defence Postgraduate Medical Dean (2009-10).

In 2011, Surgeon Captain McNeill Love attended the prestigious Royal College of Defence Studies (RCDS) in London. This was followed by his appointment as Assistant Head of Medical Policy at the HQ of the UK's Surgeon General (2011-13). This pivotal role involved policy creation for the UK's Defence Medical Services (DMS) and in addition he was the UK delegate to the NATO Military Healthcare Committee. During this time, Surgeon Captain McNeill Love became significantly involved with issues concerning International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and Military Medical Ethics. Playing a key role in the formation of the UK DMS Professional Conduct and Ethics Committee, he also worked to enhance IHL training for DMS personnel.

Appointed an Honorary Physician to HM The Queen (QHP) in 2013 he was then promoted to the UK 1* rank of Surgeon Commodore as Head of the Royal Naval Medical Service. Surgeon Commodore McNeill Love retired from the Royal Navy in December 2014.

Since 2015, Dr. McNeill Love is employed as a Consultant Occupational Physician in the City of London and between 2016 and 2017 he also worked for the UK's National Air Traffic Services (NATS).

A member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (‘Chatham House') and life-member of RCDS, Dr. McNeill Love maintains close liaison with the International Law Department of the British Red Cross. He is a Regional Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, a Member of the UK's Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management and a Fellow of the UK's Chartered Management Institute.

Dr. Robin McNeill Love was a trustee of a UK Military Charity between 2015 to 2018. He reluctantly did not extend in this role to allow time for his other commitments, including the IHFFC. He was appointed to the Medical Board of The HALO Trust in 2018. From July 2018 to July 2019, he was elected to be the Prime Warden of the City of London's Worshipful Company of Blacksmiths.

On 8 January 2019, Dr McNeill Love was greatly honoured to be appointed by HM Lord-Lieutenant for Greater London to be a Deputy Lieutenant (DL) for Greater London. This role involves supporting HM The Queen and the Royal Family within the Greater London Lieutenancy.

Rachid Belhadj

Member since 2017

Professor Belhadj received a diploma of medicine from the University of Algiers in Algeria, specializing in Forensic Medicine (1993). He has been a teacher at the Faculty of Medicine of Algiers (1994-present). He has also been a Pedagogical Director of the specialty of Legal Medicine, Medical and Ethical Law (2012-present). He is also the Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Medicine of Algiers, and the Director of Medical and Paramedical Activities of Mustapha University Hospital of Algiers.

Professor Belhadj is a specialist in the reconstruction of crime scenes, teaching at the level of the Superior School of the Magistracy of Algiers. He is responsible for the medical care of the guard at the Mustapha University Hospital of Algiers, and for the medical-judicial emergencies unit and the medical-legal examination of the accused persons. He has also a long experience in the practice of medical-judicial autopsies and expert of the Ministry of Justice in the field of personal injury (1994-present).

Professor Belhadj also participated as Responsible of the Scientific Commission on the management of provoked or natural catastrophes (Algiers attacks 1994-2007, flooding of Bab El Oued 2001, earthquake of Boumerdes 2003, Attack of Tiguentourine in 2013, crash of Ukrainian plane in the south of Algeria in 2014, Case of the monks of Tibhirine in the framework of an international rogatory commission).

Today, Professor Belhadj is the Head of Forensic Medicine Department at the Mustapha University Hospital in Algiers, President of the Algerian Society for the Development of Forensic Sciences, and continues his active involved with the ICRC in training judicial police officers and magistrates in the medical charge of the accused persons and the observance of the rules of procedure regarding the medical examination of persons in custody.


Tatiana Eddie

Member since 2022                                                    

Tatiana Eddie RAZAFINDRAVAO is a career diplomat from Madagascar.  

She holds a MA in Public Law and a M.Phil in Population and Development. After her Diploma in Public administration and International relations at the Madagascar’s National School of Administration, she joined the Foreign service of Madagascar.  

Then she served in various technical Departments of the Ministry of Foreign affairs (protocol, regional integration, multilateral cooperation, diaspora, legal affairs and general secretariat) for sixteen years. She mainly worked as a lawyer in public law and human rights affairs, in national and international issues.  

Mrs RAZAFINDRAVAO was also a consultant for Friedrich Ebert Stiftung from 2010 to 2018 in the areas of Diplomacy, International relations and Public administration. She was also a lecturer at the Madagascar’s National School of Administration during 8 years, at the National High School of Police and at the Public university of Antananarivo.  
Since 2019, she is working as a Deputy Permanent Representative at the Permanent Mission of Madagascar in Geneva and actually as Chargée d’Affaires ad interim.

Holger Federico Martinsen
Member since 2022
Stelios Perrakis

Ambassador Holger Federico MARTINSEN. Born in Buenos Aires in 1961.
Lawyer. Degree obtained at the Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires in 1985. He also graduated from the Institute of the Argentine Foreign Service in January 1989. He joined the diplomatic career in Argentina since then.
Currently Head Legal Adviser of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship of the Argentine Republic. Ambassador by rank since 2015.
He has performed functions as Permanent Representative of the Argentine Republic to the International Maritime Organization (2015-2020), Consul General of the Argentine Republic in the United Kingdom, Deputy Director General of the Office of the Legal Advisor of MFA (2007-2015).He has been Member the Argentine Delegation before the International Court of Justice in the case concerning the Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay; Counsel of the Argentine Delegation before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in Case 20 "ARA Libertad" before the Arbitral Tribunal under Annex VII of the United Nations. Member of the Argentine Arbitration Office in the case "Laguna del Desierto".
He has also been Legal adviser of the Argentine Delegation to the Argentina – United Kingdom "Joint Working Party for the carrying out of a feasibility study on the clearance of land mines” in the Islas Malvinas andworked in the Office of the Special Representative for the South Atlantic issues of the Argentine MFA.
Member of the Argentine Delegation to the Security Council of the United Nations in 1995 and in 1999/2000.
He has been an Associate Professor of public international law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires since 1990. 

Noor Ibrahim Al-Sada
Member since 2022

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Qatar

She has studied international humanitarian law in Geneva academy, university de Geneva. 
She has Master in International law of armed conflict from Geneva academy.
Noor has worked at the Permanent Mission of Qatar to the United Nations in Geneva for 5 years. She followed the human right council meetings, the ICRC and other international organizations.
She worked as Senior Advisor (secondee from the Ministry of foreign Affairs) in the Office of the President of the 74th session of the General Assembly of the UN in New York. 
She covered the Third and second committee.She represented the Government of Qatar in the "Safe School Conference” that was held in Norway in May 2015 to sign the political deceleration.
She participated in many government delegations such as, Qatar official delegation for the CEDAW in 2013, CRC 2017, CRPD 2015 and CAT 2013 which are all human rights Committees.
She was a member of the ethical committee for the "Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund” (GCERF) which based in Geneva.

She speaks Arabic, English and French.

Vaios Koutroulis
Member since 2022

Professor of public international law

International Law Centre, Faculty of law, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB)  

Having studied law at the University of Athens and ULB, Vaios Koutroulis obtained his PhD in 2011 for a thesis on the relationship between jus contra bellum and jus in bello. Currently a professor of public international law at the ULB Faculty of Law, he also teaches at the Royal Military School of Belgium and has lectured at numerous IHL courses for professionals, including members of the armed forces. His courses include, among others, public international law, law of armed conflict and international criminal law.  

His publications focus mainly on jus in bello and jus contra bellum and include a monograph on belligerent occupation published by Pedone editions (Paris) in 2010. Vaios Koutroulis was an adviser to the Counsel and Advocate of Belgium in the case concerning Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite(Belgium v. Senegal) before the International Court of Justice (2012) and is the General Director of the Military Law and Law of War Review.

Mateus Kowalski                    Member since 2022   


Mateus Kowalski is an Associate Professor at the Autonomous University of Lisbon and a Guest Associate Professor at the Nova School of Law, in the field of International Law. Mateus is currently the Director of the International Law Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal. He is a former officer of the Office of the United Nations Legal Counsel. He is the author of several publications on International Law and International Relations topics.  

Dyanne Marenco Gonzalez
Member since 2022

Dyanne Marenco González, is a Costa Rican citizen, born on September 20, 1989.  

She has a Law Degree, specializing in Environmental Law, and is an expert lawyer in Disaster Law. Master in Business Administration with emphasis in General Management. Graduated from the Master's Degree in International Relations and Diplomacy, and from the Master's Degree in Disaster Risk Management.  Licentiate in Teaching and Specialist in Notary and Registry Law.  She has developed academic research on International Humanitarian Assistance and International Humanitarian Law and has participated in several research projects and academic forum. Currently is a PhD student in Business Sciences.  

Legal advisor at the National Commission for Risk Prevention and Emergency Response (CNE) of Costa Rica (governmental civil protection agency). Certified Notary Public. Member of the Board of Directors of the Costa Rican Bar Association and representative in the Costa Rican Commission of International Humanitarian Law (CCDIH), Sub-coordinator of the International Law Commission.  She is an active member of the Network of Social Studies in Disaster Prevention in Latin America (La Red). She is a Mediator and Conciliator certified by the Ministry of Justice and Peace. 

 - Henry Dunant Award in the Field - year 2020, by the Henry Dunant Prix Foundation (Geneva). 

Åsa Molde

Member Since 2017



Dr. Molde received her Medical Degree from University of Lund, Sweden, specializing in general surgery in 1976. After almost twenty years as a surgeon, Dr. Molde went on her first missions for the ICRC in Ethiopia and Afghanistan in the early 1990's. Since then she has been dedicated to humanitarian work in armed conflicts around the world.

In 1993, she served as a medical coordinator in Bosnia for the WHO. From 1994-2001, she was a surgeon and coordinator for the ICRC in Geneva. She has worked as detention doctor for prisoners of war in Irak and Russia. From 2002 to 2005, she was an Instructor to the Swedish Armed Forces in International Humanitarian Law, trauma care, and war surgery. From 2005 until 2007, she served as a Consultant in the emergency department of the University South Hospital in Stockholm, and from 2007 until 2011, she served as a Consultant for disaster preparedness in the Swedish National Board of Health. She was a board member of the Swedish Red Cross from 2002 until 2011, serving as the Vice President from 2008 until 2011.

Nowadays, Dr. Molde conducts courses in war surgery and trauma care for the ICRC around the world in North Korea, Ukraina, Turkmenistan, Tadjikistan, Kazakhstan, Gaza, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia and other places.

Katarína Šmigová, née Galdunová
Member since 2022


Associate Professor of Public International Law, Dr., LL.M., PhD.

Dean of the Faculty of Law, Pan European University (Slovakia)  

Born in 1980 in Kežmarok (Slovakia).   

She studied law at the Comenius University, Bratislava, University of Sussex, Brighton, Pan European University, Bratislava and at various educational and research institutions, such as International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg (Diploma) and Centre for Studies and Research, Hague Academy of International Law. 

She worked as a legal counselor for unaccompanied minors (2004 – 2005).  

She has been an associate professor in public international law, and previously a senior lecturer in law, at the Faculty of Law, Pan European University, Bratislava since 2009, moreover, she was a visiting lecturer in Centro Universitário Tiradentes, Brasil, West Bohemian University, Plzeň, European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation, and the Faculty of Law, Vienna University.  

Since 2020 she has served as a chairperson of the Scientific Board, Faculty of Law of Pan European University and a member of other scientific boards, editor-in-chief of the Slovak Yearbook of International Law and a member (since 2021) of the International Advisory and Peer Review Board of the Journal Law, Identity and Values.  

Katarína Šmigová has participated in several research projects, including projects on War and Related Crimes and their Punishment at Present, Concepts of Segregation and Discrimination in International Law and their Meaning in relation to the Child's Right to Education, Interpretation of Fundamental Rights in Europe. 

She is a member of Executive Committee, Slovak Society of International Law (since 2010) and a member of the American Society of International Law.  


Sukhbold Sukhee
Member since 2022

Mr. Sukhbold Sukhee is currently serving as Director-General, Department of International Treaty and Law, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia.            
Mr. Sukhbold Sukhee began his career as an Attaché in the Department of International Organization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia in 1999, having joined the Ministry’s Department of Legal and Consular Affairs from 2000-2004. He was Second Secretary in Mongolia’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations from 2007 to 2010.            
In 2015 he became Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Mongolia to the United Nations.             
Prior to his appointment, H.E. Mr. Sukhbold Sukhee was Director-General of the Department of Public Administration and Management at the country’s Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade, having served as Acting Director of the Treaty and Law Department in 2012 and Deputy Director of the Department of Public Administration and Management from 2010 to 2012.            
Further he worked as a National consultant for preparation of the report on Universal Periodic Review on Human Rights Council, United Nations, UN Resident Coordinator’s Office in 2014.            
Mr. Sukhbold Sukhee also participates actively in civil, public and international affairs. He is a Vice President of the Singapore Institute Graduates Association.             He holds a master’s degree in business administration from Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, and a bachelor’s degree in public international law from Moscow State Institute of International Relations, as well as Senior Fellowship in Public Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy.            
He speaks English and Russian.

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